Aleksandar Vorgučić

vorgucic-1

VORGUCIC, ALEKSANDAR D.Sc. Professor (retired) University of Nis, Faculty of Electronic Engineering.

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Born on February 7, 1930 in Nis (Serbia); Spouse Desanka Prof. Librarian., Doughter Jasmina D.stomatology, Son-in-law Bratislav D. stomatology (dec) and two granddaughters, Aleksandra and Katarina. Parents Dragoljub and Radmila (both dec.).

Education: Dipl.Ing.Electrrical Engineering ’57. and Habilitation ’63. Univesity of Belgrad, D.sc ’73,University of Nis, High Technical Education 1961 UNESCO, London.

Professional activities: Electrical Science Institutin Beograd (‘57-‘60), Electronic Industry Nis (‘48-’52.;’60-’61); Professor University Beograd, University Nis, University Novi Sad (1960-1997), Visiting Professor GA Institute of Technology Atlanta (’77 – ’78).

Membership: Yugoslav Inst.Mech.&Elect.Engrg., Yugoslav Com.Geoelectricity & Lightning Protection (JKG), President Sub Com. JKG Serbia.

Honors: Award City of Nis, 1970.; Meritorious Member JKG 1975; Awards Univ.Nis 1975 & 1980., Electronic Faculty Nis 1969, Mechanical Faculty 1974, Gt.Award Univ.Nis 1990., International Man Year 1992/93 & 1995/96. Oxford GB. ; Five Thousand Personality of the World 1995 (ABI – USA).

 

CREATIVE WORKS

A. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

a. More than 30 papers about new supersensitive electrical bridge circuits, the most sensitive bridge circuits so far.

b. More than 35 papers about a new theory of the protecting spaces of the Lightning rod and process’s in Lightning Channel.

c. More than 20 papers of electrical resistivity of concrete and impulse earthing resistance invesigation.

d. 18 Books, Textbooks & Aux. Books, and numerous other works and papers in electrical circuits, instruments and antennas.

 

B. DOWSING (RADIESTHESY)

There is a serious problem in front of us, problem which is still not out studied. The reason for that is not its just appearing or that was not time for its studying, but the reason is, it seems, that the man is not grown up, or is not able to solve this problem. The problem is of the Geopathogenic influences, which exist some more thousands years. The Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Spending more times in such zones leads to weakening of organsm and appearing illnesses. Because the nature of the the Geopathogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring. GPZ like the zones of natural influence (“radiation”) can to detect only particulary persons (ESP – Extra sensory perception). Extra perception of those persons gives them opportunity to find out the sources of this “radiation” with the convenient sensors (Dowse). This phenomenon is called Radiesthesy (Dowsing). It was observed that in some houses people get ill and die more frequently than in others in the same district. Also it was marked that more generations died on the same bad from the same illness. Namely, the longer stay in such GPZ acts destructively to the all tissues, brings to the pathological changes on organisms or organs and diseases appear. These organic modifications are slow and depends also upon the sensitivity of an organism, which looses function and dies. It is clear that here other factors have influences too. The first preliminary results of the attempt at physical measuring the GPZ appeared on March 1997 when was in organization University of Nis Promotion: “The first results of the objective measuring Geopathogenic zones so far”, (Prof. A.Vorgucic)

 

My investigation in this fields are given in three main directions:

a. The first investigation was made in connection with the chronic renal diseases in the endemic regions - Endemic Nephropathy. This is example of a long time ( more years) spending in geopathogenic zones.

Some of papers:

 

1. A.Vorgucic, V.Momcilovic, SOME RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Proc. of the 6th Symposium on Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy, Nis,1987.

From summary : The ongoing research on etiology of endemic nephropathy (EN), which leads to the chronic renal failure (CRF), is taking place about thirty years. As it is well known, the presence of the disease is hidden and it takes a lot of time before it could be discovered by the irreversible changes of the kidney function and the tissue. The foci of EN are along the rivers and the territories reach with flowing waters...

The research results show that the all observed and described cases the disease attacked the persons who were exposed for a long time to the influence of underground water flow, i.e. the persons whose beds were located over the underground water flow. The results of this research may give an answer to the question or enigma why the EN is mosaiclly spread.

Although the number of described cases in this preliminary research is relatively small, the fact is, that the all, without exemption, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of geopathogenic zones (underground flowing water). This research should be continued and connected with some other emerging factors.

 

2. A.Vorgucic, SOME SUGGESTION FOR THE FURTHER RESEARCH ON ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Proc. 4th Congers of the Nephrologist Yugoslav, Skopje, 1989.

From abstract: A suggestion for a further research on EN is given in this paper. The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to the research of the simultaneous influence factors one of which is known. The known influencing factor is geophatogenic zones of the underground flowing waters, which with its own “radiation” act destructively to the human body. This radiation could be easily detected. In this a manner the research of the other influencing factors would drastically get narrower.

 

3. A.Vorgucic, PREVENTION POSSIBILITY OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Proc. BANTAO- First Scientific Meeting (Congress), Varna (Bulg), 1995.(Paper 72).

Abstract: In all investigation of diseases in the endemic territories, one of the main enigma is appearing the location of diseases in shape of the mosaic. It means that the falling ill are not included all the houses, or in one family does not fall ill all the members, although all of them lives tougether, they take the same food, drink the same water and they breathe the same air.

The second conclusion, for the appearing the Endemic Nephropathy (EN) is necessary a exposition of long duration (more years) to unknown "agency" and the abandonment the living place in time, or in the early childhood, reliable protects from diseases.

Investigations on EN, which the author realized, on the principle different from uses, pointed at the all, without acceptation, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of the geopathogenic zones (probably unknown "agency").

In the announcement, like idea, the suggestion for the prevention the appearing of the EN will be given. This is possible, in endemic districts, only by dislocation of the beds and stationer working places from the relative narrow geophatogenic zones, which with its influence, weakness organism and can bring to appear the diseases. It is not necessary the abandonment the living place.

 

4. A.Vorgucic, PROPOSAL FOR CONTINUAL EXPLORATION OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, ibid. Varna (Bulg),1995. (Paper 73).

From abstract: A suggestion for further research on EN is give in this announcement. The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to the research of the simultaneous influence factors (two or more), one which is known. The known influencing factor are geophatogenic zones of the underground waters, which with its own "radiation’s" acts destructively to the human body. This first factor, geophatogenic zones, could be easily detected. In this manner the research of the other influencing factors would drastically get narrower. Some suggestions for the further research on EN would be given, according subproject SANU (Serb Academy of Science and Art), "Exploration influences of Geophatogenic Zones like Catalyst of Causer of Endemic Nephropathy".

 

5. A.Vorgucic, GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AS CATALYST OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, BANTAO – Second Congress, Struga. R.Macedonia, 1997.

From abstract: The Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms.

Spending more time in such zones, leads to weakening of organism and appearing illnesses. Because the nature of the Geophatogenic influences zones is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring.

Investigations on Endemic Nephropathy (EN), which the author realized, pointed the fact, that all, without exemption, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of GPZ (underground flowing waters).

The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to research of the simultaneous influence factors (two or more), one which is known and it is GPZ like CATALYST.

 

6. A.D.Vorgučić, X + Y + t = ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Symposium “New trends in nephrology”, Med.A.N &. SLD Niš, jun 2013.

The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to research of the simultaneous influence factors (in this paper): X Characteristic of an endemic area, Y supplementary influential for the disease and t the incubation time.

In conclusion, the study deals with the prevention, detection of potential patients, the study of the early stages of the disease, and this has enabled the knowledge that the impact factor of Y are geopathogenic zones. These effects do not belong to the physical fields.

 

b. Further investigation are in connection with the instantaneous (suddenly) action the geopathogenic zones. This influence appears like the traffic accidents. The appearing of visions (hallucinations) is also possible in such a cases.

 

Some of papers:

1. Vorgucic A., Jovanovic J., Milovanovic Lj., THE GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES INFLUENCE ON THE TRAFFIC SECURITY, Proc. YU Traffic medicine, Nis, 1994.

From abstract: This paper points at the Traffic accidents, which occurs absolutely unexpected, on the part of fully straight road, out of cross-road, out of enclosing road. The cars, without any reason, turn, strike to the fence, electrical - telephone pole or wehicle on the road. Preliminary investigation on such places, which lead the Laboratory for physical radiesthesy Electronic faculty in Nis, Institution for working medicine in Nis and Section of traffic polic in Nis, point out on geopathogenic zones like the most probable cause such a traffic accidents.

 

2. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AND TRAFIC ACCIDENT, - invited paper-, Proc. 9th YU Congress of Working Medicine, Nis, 1997.

From abstract: This paper pointed at traffic accidents which occurs absolutely unexpectedly, on the part of fully straight road, out of cross-road and out of enclosing rod. For such a accidents in reports says "For unknown reasons". Our investigations in this direction, pointed at the geophatogenic zones like the most possible cause such traffic troubles. The driver reaction and the uncontrolled car turning aside in this paper is explained by the recent discovered hastily falling the frequency and great amplitude increasing of the brain waves by crossing in the geopathogenic zone. Such big frequency falling and suddenly amplitude increasing does not occurs always and is stipulate also with some other influences but always in the geopathogenic zones.

In the paper are also given the results of the last investigation the numerous traffic accidents on the road Ohrid - Struga in R.Macedonia, close by monastery St.Erazmo. Only on one place on the road for 20 years was 1320 accidents "for unknown reason" with 68 dead and about 900 injured.

 

c. Like general question in connection with the nature the geopathogenic influences, and attempting of measuring in other words detection’s the geopathogenic zones, the next investigation are presented with some papers:

 

l. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AND THEIR INFLUENCE – invited paper-, 5th International Scientific Meeting PIIT 94, Nis,1994.

Abstract: The paper deals with the natural phenomena which negative effects were found on man, animals as well as plants. This negative influence originates from underground flowing waters and geological clefts and are called geophatogenic zones. The nature of geopathogenic zones is still unknown and there fore does not exist the instruments for its objective measure. Because the man with his radiestesics ability is only detect of geopathogenic zones there is spoken about radiesthesic. They are mentioned longtime influence on persons and appearing illness and also is mentioned the effect of its instant activity.

 

2. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AND BRAIN WAVES, invited paper –5th Int. Conference for Urban Ecology, Pirot – Temska, May 1997.

From abstract: The first preliminary results of the attempt at physical measuring the geophatogenic zones are given in this paper. The geophatogenic zones are the influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Because the nature of the geophatogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring. Here the first preliminary results measuring the geophatogenic zone influence on the brain wave frequency are given. So this is the first physical measuring of the geophatogenic zones so far.

 

3. Vorgucic A., ROLE THE CONTEMPRORARY GEOMANT IN ARCHITECT PROJECTING, ibid., Temska, 1997.

Abstract: In this paper are given the results of investigation the residential objects like and some cases working places in connection with appearance miscellaneous diseases causal with the geopathogenic zones. The geopathogenic zones appears from underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which negative influences on the living organisms. Like usual praxis by construction objects in China the convenient places for building, determinate, particular sensitive persons – geomants -. In order to avoid the negative influence the geopathogenic zones, propose the selection positive location the objects, before construction, and on the base the measuring the determinate geopathogenic zones. Also, suggest, by already constructed objects dislocation the critical working and residential places. In the paper are shown the critical objects with many geopathogenic zones with many cases cancers, leukemia and other diseases.

 

4. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC FIELDS – EFFECTS AND MEASUREMENT, - invited paper -, 6th Int. SAUM Conference, Nis, 1998.

Abstract: There is a serious problem in front of us, problem which is still not out studied. The reason for that is not its just appearing or that was not time for its studding, but the reason is, it seems, that the man is not grown up, or is not able to solve this problem. The problem is of the Geopathogenic influences, which exist some more thousands years.

Now the possibility of the detection the Geopathogenic influences legalizes its existence, enable attaint introduction in physical fields, and performs challenge for further research and development. The Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Spending more time in such zones leads to weakening of organism and appearing illnesses. Because the nature of the Geopathogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring.

GPZ like the zones of natural influence ("radiation") can to detect only particularly persons (ESP - Extra sensory perception). Extra perception of those persons gives them opportunity to find out the sources of this "radiation" with the convenient sensors (Dowser). This phenomenon is called Radiesthesy and method of the detection of the "radiation" source the radiesthesic method (UDK 550.87 - biological and physical methods in geology). It was observed that in some houses people get ill and die more frequently than in others in the same district. Also it was marked that more generations died on the same bad from the same illness. Namely, the longer stay in such GPZ acts destructively to all tissues, brings to the pathological changes on organisms or organs and diseases appear. These organic modifications are slow and depends also upon the sensitivity of an organism, which looses function and dies. It is clear that here other factors can have influences too.

The paper pointed also at traffic accidents which occurs absolutely unexpectedly, on the part of fully straight road, out of cross-road and out of enclosing rod. or such a accidents in reports says "for unknown reasons". Our investigations in this direction, pointed at the GPZ like most possible cause such traffic troubles.

The first preliminary results of the attempt at physical measuring the GPZ appeared on 27 March 1997. when was in organization University of Nis and Electronic faculty Promotion"The first results the objective measuring Geopathogenic zones so far" (author A. Vorgucic). Hypothesis that the persons with ESP (Dowsers) in the GPZ transit in lower frequency band of the brain waves, was experimental approved.

Measuring EEG (Electroencephalogram) was made on very sensitive medium in normal awaked condition with the open eyes. The measuring results on more then 70 pages diagrams f(t), are presented very simple with the diagram of the instantaneous the medium brain frequency change entering and outgoing in and from GPZ.

On the diagram it could be seen the hastily frequency change by crossing in and out GPZ. And at the end, the existence of Geopathogenic influences (fields) could be now physically registered, on the paper with changing the brain wave frequency.

 

5. Vorgucic A., PENETRATION INTO UNREACHED, 5th Int. Conference – TELSIKS 2001, Nis, Yuoslavia, sept. 2001. pp. 349-52.

Abstract: The first preliminary results to attempt at objective physical detection (measuring) the geopathogenic zones are given in this paper. The geopathogenic zones are the influencing spaces of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Because the nature of geopathogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring. Here the first preliminary results objective detection the geopathogenic zones influence on the brain wave frequencies are given. So this is the first physical detection of the geopathogenic influence zones so far.

 

6. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC FIELDS ? MEASURING AND CHALLENGE, 7 th Int.Conference On Applied Electromagnetics PES 2005, Nis 2005.

EXTENDED ABSTRACT

Abstract: The first preliminary results to attempt at objective physical detection the geopathogenic zones are given in this paper. The geopathogenic zones are the influencing spaces of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. The first measuring the geopathogenic influence confirms its reality and with this the first step and the first penetration in this thousands years known but still unreached field. Keywords: Geopath.zones, Brain waves, Dowsing

 

INTRODUCTION

In this paper is given one of the first relatively successful attempt the objective detection the hard reached but for a long time known phenomena. These phenomena are the harmful influence of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts. Although these phenomena are known for a very long time, more thousand years, they are still not out studied. The reason for that is not its just appearing or that was not time for its studying, but the reason is, it seems, that the man is not grown up, or is not able to solve this problem. The phenomenon is the influences of underground flowing waters – geopathogenic influences named Geopathogenic zones (GPZ). There was no systematic study of such phenomena in the new age, when the science developed very fast. But the phenomenon exist. I would like here mention only a very interesting, most ambitious experiment sponsored of a German government, ten year project to test and apply dowsing methods to locate water sources in ariad regions. It involved over 2000 drillings in Sri Lanka, Zaire, Kenya, Nambia, Yemen and other contries [1].

 

GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES

Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are still insufficiently researched biological active form of an influence, which in form of radiation effects harmfully, not only on man but on the whole herbal and animal world. Underground flowing waters, let us term “radiates” its negative influence vertically upward and also somewhat weakly under determinate angels. This is very similar to radiation of antenna system, which in addition to the main leaf of radiation has also secondary lateral leaves which are symmetrical according to the main leaf.

As an example of negative effect of GPZ let us cite some researches. In the Introduction of the paper [2] stays: “The collection of problems involved with active earthiness attracts bigger and bigger attention. Negative effects of pathogenic earth-zone were found on man, animals as well as plants”, and further in Conclusion: “The effects of underground waters are fairly strong and the response of plants is quite obvious. Generally spoken, the effected plants are shorter, dwarfish, deformed, they bring lower yields, get yellow color, dry up, the whole parts of stool die out“. In a part of the Conclusion the paper [3] about the investigation of endemic nephropathy stay: “. Although the number of described cases in this preliminary research is relatively small, the fact is, that the all, without exemption, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of geopethogenic zone (underground flowing waters)”. Research on the appearing the arthritis, which performed Herbert Douglas in Vermont [4] in one district shows that the beds of the all sick persons were located exclusively in the geopathogenic zones underground flowing waters. For the explored area he registered 60 cases of arthritis, 20 cases of cancer and 9 cases of cataract.

In addition to slowly and long duration exercise of geopathogenic influence, it can also action instantaneous and unexpected. This is noticed in the traffic accidents. Paper [5] pointed at traffic accidents which occurs absolutely unexpectedly, on the part of straight road, out of cross-road and out of enclosing rod. For such an accidents in reports (newspapers) says “for unknown reasons”. The nature of geopatogenic influences (GPZ) is completely unknown. The GPZ keep its width and penetrates through all materials (iron, lead, concrete and others) without noticed drooping but with a reservation, at least on the space where we are living and where we are moving.

 

RADIESTHESY – DISPOSITION GPZ

GPZ like the zones of the natural influence (“radiation) could be detected only by the particular persons sensitive on the these influences. Extra perception of these persons gives them opportunity to find out the sources of this “radiation”, with the convenient sensor (Dowse). This phenomenon is called Radiesthesy and the method of detection of the “radiation” source is called the radiesthesic method (UDK 550.80 – biological and physical methods in geology).

The nature of these geopathogenic influences on the dowsers is still absolutely unknown. There are numerous questions about GPZ and it is a big challenge to study these phenomena. The dowsing rod is an instrument with the greatest challenge.

 

HYPOTHESIS AND RESULTS

Idea for this research is originated like collision of the two observations. On one side it was noticed thatthe little children up to 4 years old, who are naturally sensitive on the dangerous geopathogenic zones and escape them. On the other side, the brain waves frequency of little children is very low, up to 4 Hz and belongs to the group delta waves. Bringing these facts into connectionsthe author got the new hypothesis. The first preliminary results of the attempt at a objective detection GPZ appeared through the “Promotion first results objective measuring of the GPZ so far”, with the lecture “Geopathogenic Zones and Their Influences” – author Prof. Dr Aleksandar D. Vorgucic, in organization University of Nis on March 1997. These first experimental proving of preliminary results confirmed the placed hypothesis about decreasing the brain waves frequency in GPZ on the ESP persons (dowsers).

 

vorgucic-2

Fig. 1. Brain wave frequency change on ESP person by crossing in and out GPZ

 

The experimental results on more then 70 pages diagrams v(t) are presented very simple with the diagram of the instantaneous medium brain wave frequency change entering in and out going from GPZ as is shown in Fig. 1. On the diagram the hastily frequency change by crossing from the one into the other zone could be seen.

These results have been presented in paper [6] on the International Conference, with experimental proof of the existence of geopathogenic influences, which at present could be physically registered, on paper, with the help of EEG like the changing of the brain waves frequency.

Only on the one diagram of the brain waves, between plenty of them, it was noticed a very storm reaction of the brain. From the unknown reason, when the medium entered into GPZ the brain wave frequency abruptly decreased and amplitude increased, something like by epilepsy attack or the deep sleeping. The picture diagram of brain waves for this case is shown on Fig. 2. With this it is now possible to explain the traffic accidents, which occurs on the roads where the vehicle had turned “for unknown reasons”.

So with these measuring the geopatogenic influence and obtained results is made the first step i.e. first penetration in this thousands years known but still unreached field so far /7/.

 

vorgucic-3

Fig.2. Special case of abrupt change of the Brain wave frequency.

 

ABOUT PHYSICAL FIELDS

Each physical field is a space in which feels influence of the field source. According to this here is made the attempt that the geopathogenic influence spaces can consider at present like a kind of a new physical field. Generally, the forces which affects outside border of matter are calling action-at-a-distance or usually field forces. The influence of the underground flowing water (GPZ) as it was mentioned, could be now detected, watch confirms its reality and its existence. This could be now seen as instantaneous decreasing the brain wave frequency entering in and increasing leaving the influence zone (Fig.1).. For a further study of sensors and instrumentation for measuring such a fields ought to mention that this field have not obstruct and are similar to gravitation fields transits trough all materials. Probably if its observed some material with some considerable absorption, that would bring to some more suitable sensors.

 

CONCLUSION

Existention the influential spaces of the underground flowing waters, long ago known with its negative effects are proved, with objective detection. Here is made one attempt that these mentioned influences spaces consider as field – Geopathogenic field. The first objective detection of geopathogenic fields is performed by measuring the abrupt decreasing the brain wave frequency by crossing in and increasing by outgoing the GPZ. Further study on this matter is a big challenge, but it should be have in mind that “The way of thousandth miles, starts with the firs step”, and the first step is already done.

REFERENCES

[1] Batz H.D., “Unconventional Water Detection”, Journal of Scientific Exploration Stanford University, Stanford.Ca. March 1995.

[2] Salatova M., “Effects of Active Earth Zones on Plants cultivated in Gardners Establishments”, 6th Int.Conf.on Psychotronic Research, Zgreb, pp. 156-159, 1986.

[3] Vorgucic A., Momcilovic V.,” Neki Rezultati Istrazivanja Endemske Nefropatije”, (Some Results of Research on Endemic Nephropathy ), 6th Symp.on Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, Med.AN, SLD, Niska Banja, pp.187-197. 1987

[4] Douglas H..,” Dowsing: can it cure arthritis ? “ in The Banner, May 1978.

[5] Vorgucic A..,”Geopatogene zone i saobra}ajni udesi” (The Geopathogenic Zones and Trafic Accidents), IX Jugoslovenski Kongres medicine rada, Ni{, 1997.

[6] Vorgucic A, “Geopathogenic Zones and Brain Waves”, V Int. Conference for Urban Ecology, Pirot-Temska, Maj 1997

[7] Vorgucic A, “Penetration into Unreached”, 5th International Conference TELSIKS 2001, Nis 2001, pp. 349-52. Also printed in Microwave Rewie No 2, Vol.7, Sept.2001., pp.46-49.

 

 


 

 

A – a. SUPERSENSITIVE ELECTRICAL BRIDGES

Forearm Bridge

 

vorgucic-4

vorgucic-formula-1

 

Maximal sensitivities of the some typical electrical bridges

Supersensitive bridges:

a) frequency independent (Vorgucic, 1980.);

vorgucic-formula-2

10000 (sensitivity for Q = 100)

 

b) frequency dependent (Vorgucic, 1973.);

vorgucic-formula-3

Multivibrator bridge (Macher, 1967.) - 1

Double and some AC bridges (Field,1931.; Tutll,1940.) - 0,5

Other bridges (Wheatstone 1843, Maxwell 1873., Wien 1891, Hay 1910., Robinson 1924, Kurokawa 1924 and others) - 0,25

 

The supersensitive bridges are a new group of bridge circuits – the most sensitive bridges circuits so far. Sensitivity of those bridges, using ordinary elements, is two order (102) of magnitude higher then classical resonance bridge and four order (104) of magnitude higher then sensitivity of other classical bridges. Although, schematic very simple, the supersensitive bridges results from a deep study of the measuring bridge sensitivity. The first supersensitive frequency dependent bridge, called double resonance bridge, appeared after a new expression and a new graphical method for sensitivity of forearm bridge. The study of balance line for classical and double resonance bridges brought about the new frequency independent bridges, more simple and more sensitive ones.

 

Some of papers:

1. Vorgucic A., DIE EMPFINDLICHKEIT VON REAKTANZBRUECKEN ZUR FREQUENZUEBERWCHUNG UND FREQUENZMESSUNG, Nachrichtentechnik, 20, No.3, Berlin, 1970.

 

Zusamenfassung: Die Reaktanzbruecken haben die besondere Eingeschaft, dass dieEmpfindlichkeit mehrere Male groeser ist als die Empfindlichkeit der bis jetzt fuer die Frequenzmessung benutzten Bruecken. Sie sind genauer, weil nur ein Element veraenderlich ist und weil sie einen begrenzteren Frequenzbereich bei Veraunderung der variablen Elemente haben. Weiterhin koenen die Reaktanzbruecken sehr wirkungsvoll fuer die Frequenzueberwachung benutzt werdwn. In diesen Bruecken koenen Spulen verwendet werden, da die Faktor Q die Empfindlichkeit der Bruekcken nichi sehr beeinflusst. Spulen mit einem Guetenfaktor von etwa 100 sind Spulen normaler Produktion, so dass es bei den Reaktanzbruecken nicht notwendig ist, sich nach Specialelementen umzuschauen.

 

2. Vorgucic A., DOUBLE RESONANCE BRIDGE, Electron Lett. No 18, 9, 1973.

From abstract: The letter deals with a group of frequency – dependent bridges with high sensitivities, and particularly with a new bridge that has optimum sensitivity. It is suggested that it be termed double – resonance bridge.

 

3. Vorgucic A., LOCUS DIAGRAMS IN DOUBLE RESONANCE BRIDGE, Proc. 3rd International. Symp. on Network Theory, Split, 1975.

From abstract: The paper deals with locus diagrams in double resonance bridge. The locus diagrams are convenient in studding processes of balancing and convergence of bridges. The potential points and locus diagrams for classical bridges for measuring impedance and frequency are in a part of the complex plane of the potential. This part is limited by a circle the diameter of which equals applied voltage. The new double resonance bridge is the most sensitive bridge so far. The sensitivity ( ) is Q times higher than the till now most sensitive classical resonance bridge ( ). The locus diagram of double resonance bridge, and only in these bridges are in the entire, unlimited, complex plane of the potential. There are given equations for locus diagrams when varies quantities like frequency of applied voltage and elements in the bridge.

 

4. Vorgucic A., GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR THE SENSITIVITY OF FOUR ARM A.C. BRIDGES, Meteorologia (YU), No 4, 1976.

From summary: The paper presents the definitions for absolute and relative sensitivities of electrical bridges. A suitable equation was developed for the sensitivity of four arm bridges for frequency control and measurement. By introducing a generalized variable the equation becomes a general expression for four arm bridge sensitivity.

 

5. Vorgucic A., Wallace J., LOCI OF EQUAL SENSITIVITY IN A.C. BRIDGES, Proc.of Southereastercon 78, Symp.IEEE, Atlanta, 1978.

From abstract: This paper presents, for the three-element, forearm bridge, equations and loci of equal sensitivity found by changing bridge elements. This new plot, found by changing the single – element arm, complements previously published material which was developed on the basis of changes in two 1 element arms. This complete family of equal sensitivity plots facilitates the analysis and optimum sensitivity design at modern a.c. bridge.

 

6. A.Vorgucic, SUPERSENSITIVE BRIDGE CIRCUIRS, Proc. 2nd. Int. Symp. Theoretische Elektrotechnik Ilmenau (DDR), 1983.

From abstract: This paper deals with a new group of the bridge circuits – the most sensitive bridges so far. Sensitivity of this bridges, using ordinary elements, is two order of magnitude higher than classical bridges. Although, schematic very simple, the supersensitive bridges results from a deep study of the measuring bridge sensitivity. The first supersensitive frequency dependent bridge, called double resonance bridge appeared after a new expression and new graphical method for sensitivity of four arm bridges. The study of balance lines for classical and supersensitive bridges brought about the new frequency independent bridges more simple and more sensitive ones.

 

7. A.D.Vorgucic, EXTREME SENSITIVE BRIDGE CIRCUITS, Congress of Metrology, Beograd, May 2003.

Abstract: This paper deals with a new group of the electrical bridge circuits the most sensitive so far. Sensitivities of these bridges, using ordinate elements, could be some order of magnitude higher then the other classical bridges. Although, very simple, the new supersensitive bridges results from a deep study of the bridge circuits sensitivity. The first frequency dependent supersensitive bridge appeared after a new expression and a new graphical method for the four arm bridges sensitivity. On the new graphical presentation could be seen the areas of low and high sensitivities. The supersensitive bridges originated by putting the bridge working point in area of high, by this presentation, which was empty so far. Further study of vector diagrams in the complex plane of potential brought to the new frequency independent bridge more sensitive and more simple one. This one is convenient for capacity and inductance control.

The less are the losses in elements, the higher is sensitivity, for ideal elements the sensitivity is unlimited.

 

vorgucic-6

New diagram of sensitivity bridge circuits.

 

vorgucic-7

Relative sensitivity for different ratio C2/C1

 

vorgucic-8

Vector diagram for Double resonance frequency dependent bridge

 

 8. A.Vorgucic, GENESIS THE ELECTRICAL BRIDGE CIRCUITS OF EXTREME SENSITVITY – SINGULAR BEHAVIOR. –XI International Conf. SAUM 2012.

Introduction of new ideas, observations, and methods it is possible to achieve very large and theoretically unlimited infinite sensitivity.

The new diagram enabled the author to achieve extreme sensitivity bridge circuits. The first such bridge frequency dependent have sensitivity:

vorgucic-formula-3

Using the circular and locus diagrams, author came an even more sensitive frequency independent bridge circuits:

 

vorgucic-formula-4

Infinite sensitivity of these bridges can theoretically be achieved by entering the working point into a singular point, according the given new diagram. But impossible, since entering in the singular point (a real singularity) performs overall short-circuit and the collapse of system. This is analogous to the situation in the universe, at the last stage in the life of stars. The emergence of "black holes" - compression of matter to one point (singular point) results in collapse and disappearance of the star.

 

 


 

 

 

A – b PROTECTING SPACES OF THE LIGHTNING ROD

vorgucic-9

 

The purpose of the lightning rod, vertical conductive rod, is to protect the disposed surface on the earth from the lightning stroke, so to cause all strikes on its top, was introduced by Franklin in the year 1873. The lightning rod protective zones were generally determinate on observations and experience. But this observations differed from place to place, what could be seen from heterogeneous different national regulations in connection with lightning protection. Further research and observation pointed out that the discharge over lightning occurs in successive strikes. Those strikes comes one after another over same channel which is ionized with the first strike. Strike number in one lightning flash could be over 20, but most are 3 to 5. Every strike has its introductory discharge which is named leader. The first introductory discharge, which transports negative electrical charge from cloud to the earth is stepped. The leader spark starts from cloud, crosses some way and stops., and after short time interval continue to move. The length of each step is about 100 m. It seems that the lightning with its first leader looks for the most convenient way for the main discharge and therefor curved and broken form the lightning cannel. In this stage originates the branches of spark. Striking point of the lightning is not by anything determinate in advance at the beginning leader moving, but on the end when leader approaches to the earth, on about hundred meters. This distance is called “striking distance”, which depends, generally, on the electrical charge in the leader channel, when the leader approaches enough to the object or earth (on striking distance) due to electrical charge deposited in leader channel an electrical field on the object or earth exceeds critical value, starts positive connecting streamer (return stroke) with the velocity of about 5x107 m/s, which connects striking point (on object or earth) with the tip of the downmoving leader. After completing the first strike, with the pause of about 30 ms comes second, third and other strikes. Each of this has also two discharges processes, introductory and the main. The leaders of the second and other strikes are not stepped but continual and they quickly moves trough the already ionized channel with previous strikes.

New and new lightning strokes on the objects already protected, specially at high structure, makes conviction, that there is no absolutely sure lightning protection. The better knowledge of atmospheric electrical discharge, in the recent time, lead to the new vision and new theories. The development of new theories, which includes numerous protected spaces around one lightning rod, allows better evaluation of the protected spaces of the lightning rod. Based on the “electrogeometric” theory, evaluated a new method of the more protected spaces of the lightning rod depending of the crest current of the lightning stroke. If the leader approaches a long vertical rod or a tall structure, it will be struck at a point on the structure or earth on the shortest distance from the leader tip, which is equal to the striking distance. The striking distance depends on the charge in the leader channel, namely lightning crest current D = f(I). The radius of protecting zone for each current is equal to the striking distance. The structure has smaller protected space for lower lightning current and reverse. According to the principal of the “shortest distance”, protected space is inside the cone which has circle shaped envelope radius proximate equal to the striking distance.

 

vorgucic-10

 

The new version of the protected area (Vorgucic 1978.)

 

Some of papers:

1. Vorgucic A., CONDITION FOR EVALUTION OF THE PROTECTING ZONE OF THE LIGHTNING ROD, Proc. FAA/GT Workshop on grounding and Lightning protection, Atlanta, 1978.

Abstract: The height of a lightning rod is not the only determining parameter of the protecting zone. More complete evaluation of the protecting zone requires knowledge of the value of lightning current, which depends on physicogeographic properties of a given area.

 

2. Vorgucic A., ESTIMATE OF THE PROTECTION OF AREA WITH LONG VERTICAL LIGHTNING RODS, Tehnika (YU), No 1., 1979.

From abstract: The paper gives a new vision of the protected areas covered by long vertical lightning rods and of high objects. A solitary vertical lightning rod has many different protection zones, each of them being defined mainly by the maximal current of lightning. As lightning currents depend on the geo-physical conditions of the region we want to protect, for estimate of the area protected by lightning rod it is necessary to know the values of lightning current for the given region.

 

3. Vorgucic A., Mladenovic I., EXPOSITION TO THE LIGHTNING CURRENT OF OBJECTS SITUATED NEAR THE VERTICAL LIGHTNING ROD, Proc. 10th International Aerospace and Grounding Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (ICOLSE), Paris, 1985.

From abstract: In the paper is given the method of estimating, namely, the determining the maximum value of lightning current an object or equipment could be exposed to, when placed to the lightning rod or any other object having the function of the lightning rod. This estimation of possible maximum value of lightning current a lower object is exposed to, is based on the evolution of the more protected spaces of lightning rod. The maximum value of the lightning current an equipment or a object could be exposed to, is the function of the lightning rod, the dimensions of the object and their reciprocal distance.

 

4. Vorgucic A., LIGHTNING DISCHARGE INFLUENCE ON THE ELECTRONIC DEVICES, 2nd International Symposium of Applied Electrostatics (PES’86), Nis,1985.

From abstract : The paper pointed out the great influence of the lightning discharge on the electronic devices and systems. Beside destroying from direct stroke, great importance has also indirect stroke over electrical and magnetic fields, which comes from much broader district and so are destroings, demagings and disturbances more frequent. It is also pointed out the disturbance on electronic system over grounding system.

 

5. Vorgucic A., Mladenovic I., SOME CONSIDERATION ABOUT STRIKING DISTANCE, 19th Blitzschutzkonferenz, Graz, 1988.

From abstract: The numerical values of the striking distances is usually verify from the photos of the lightning channel. Unusually long striking distance, as is know, may be influenced by the positive space charge, produced by point discharge or prior upward flashes. In this paper is also pointed out on one more indefiniteness which may have influence in the estimation the striking distance from the lightning channel photos. By introducing two types of movement in the stepped leader it shows that influence is as much greater as the final jump takes place at the beginning of the last step of the stepped leader along the channel already prepared by the pilot streamer.

 

6. Vorgucic A., Mladenovic I, A NEW APPROACH TO THE DETERMINATION OF THE STRIKING DISTANCE FROM THE LIGHTNING CHANNEL PHOTOS, International Aerospace and Grounding conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, Cocoa Beach (Florida), 1991.

From abstract : The paper is concerned with the emphasis of the possible influence the stepped leader movement on the value of the striking distance. The numerical values of the striking distances are most frequently verified from the lightning channel photos. There is some explanations for dispersion of the striking distance which appears specially on the tall structures. Unusually long striking distance, may be influenced by the positive space charge or prior upward flashes. One more indefiniteness which may have influence in estimation the striking distance is a complex charge motion in the leader channel. Through introduction of two types charge motion it is shown possible shortening of the striking distance seen on the lightning channel photos.

 

7. Vorgucic A., THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONDUCTIVE RING ON THE EFFECTIVE HEIGHT OF THE LIGHTNING ROD, Facta Universitatis, Serie: Physics, Chemistry and Technology, Vol.1, No 4, Nis, 1997.

From abstract : In this paper the experimental results of the examination, on the model, the influence of the concentric, conductive circle ring position on the effective height of the vertical lightning rod are given. The effective height is determinate in relation to the vertical lightning rod without the ring. The height of the ring is changeable and was, in experiment, changed from zero to the height of the top the lightning rod. The investigation is performed for a normal discharge case with the negative downward leader and also for a reversed case, the positive discharge coming from the cloud. The results of the experiment pointed out on negative influence of the ring, namely on decreasing of the effective height, and that was expected.

 

 


 

 

 

A–c CONCRETE AND IMPULSE EARTHING RESISTANCE

vorgucic-11

 

Because of more and more electrical power and higher and higher voltages in electrical systems the grounding presents still theoretical and practical problem in spite on the fact that the power frequency grounding of protective system is good defined. In addition it must be mention that in the grounding of lightning protective systems the striking earth resistance (impulse impedance) would not be measured but estimate from the steady-state earthling resistance determined by standard methods of measuring technique, geometry of grounding electrodes and resistively of surrounding soil. The purpose of earthing is to assure the way in the earth for electrical system power fault currents or lightning currents and to prevent appearance the voltage between arrangement and earth. Grounding system have to be able to dicipate in the earth the energy of the direct lightning stroke or others currents, in such a manner to remain able to receive the next strike. The system also have to, after lightning stroke, be able for a quality transmission of signals in the transmission networks of signals, which are connected on the grounding system.

Recently, very often foundation earth is in use, which results as consequence from: a) using more and more reinforced concrete i.e. using the metal in the objects, 2) the objects closeness in the settled places and c) plastic replacing the metal in the water and other installations used as an additional earth electrodes before. The mechanical properties of concrete are well known. But the electrical properties does not follow the mechanical properties. To make this question clear, we started to investigate the time dependence of electrical resistively of concrete. The long-term electrical resistively investigations shows that the concrete resistively increases permanently. The increasing of the concrete resistively is also for the concrete which is permanent in most soil.

The increasing concrete resistively after long time period could have considerable increasing of the foundation earth, what could a) lead to decreasing of the grounding system effectively b) the appearance the interference an the increased earthing impedance in higher frequency sisters with common earthing. The resistively increasing of concrete floors in industries where static electricity appears, could lead to the technological processes spoiling and the speed reduction of the production

 

vorgucic-12

Some of papers:

1.Vorgucic A., EFFECT OF LIGHTNING CURRENT IMPULSE PARAMETERS ON EARTHING RESISTIVITY, Tehnika-Elektrotehnika (YU), No 7-8, 1975.

From abstract: Impact resistivity of an earthling system depends, in addition to the soil resistivity and earthling line length, included by the Regulations, to a large extent of the value of lightning current (due to sparking in the soil), as well as of the velocity of current encase. Since physic-geographic properties of a given territory have a great influence on the development of a dynamic atmospheric phenomena and values of lightning current impulse parameters, for the purpose of estimating the impact resistivity it is required to know the lightning current impulse parameters for the given territory.

 

2. Vorgucic., ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION EARTH, International Conference on Grounding, Lightning and Static Electricity, Fort Worth (Texas), 1983.

From abstract: The results of many ears research of the electrical resistivity change of concrete in connection with different grounding are presented. The examinations are made under different conditions of moisture and combinations of electrodes. Even for a long period of time the concrete electrical resistivity increases permanently. The electrical resistivity increasing of concrete at foundation earth could lead to decreasing of the effectively of the grounding system. Also, in industries, where static electricity appears, increasing resistivity of concrete floors could have influence in the technological processes.

 

3. Vorgucic A., SOME PROBLEMS IN GROUNDING H.F. EQUIPMENTS AND DEVICES, 2nd Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite and Cable Services (TELSIKS’95), Nis, 1995.

From abstract: This paper point at some problems which can appear in single-point grounding. This grounding, according to its advantages is widely used in electronics and H.F. systems grounding. In dependence from the working frequency and dimensions of the grounding system, by the practical realization of this grounding can also appear interference’s and disturbances in signals and informing data. For greater systems with H.F. it’s used grounding tree with branches, zones, sub-zones and Faradays armous.

 

4. Vorgucic A., ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY CHANGE OF CONCRETE WITH THE AGE, 1st Serbien Symposium on Applied Electrostatic, Nis, 1984.

From abstract: In the paper are presented the last results of many ears research of the electrical resistivity of concrete. The electrical resistivity increasing of concrete at the foundation earth and the concrete floors, may have influence on the technological processes in industry, where static electricity appears. Electrical resistivity increasing with the age means decreasing the static electricity leading of, and spoiling the technological processes on one hand and the risk increasing from the explosions, fire and the shook to personal from the electrical stroke on the other.

 

5. Vorgucic A., ABOUT ESTIMATION OF IMPULSE EARTHING RESISTANCE, 19th International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP1988), Graz, Austria.

From abstract: In the paper are given some considerations in connection with impulse earthling resistance and determining the effective length of the varies earthling electrodes. In the paper are also given the results of many years research of the electrical resistivity change of concrete used in foundation earthling.

 

6. Vorgucic A., A NEW PROBLEM IN GROUNDING, Symposium on Electronics Technology ’90., Budapest, 1990.

From abstract: The results of many years research of the electrical resistivity change of concrete in connection with foundation grounding are presented. This examinations are made under different conditions of moisture and combinations of electrode materials. Even for a long period the concrete electrical resistivity increases permanently. Increasing of the concrete resistivity in the modern foundation grounding, which takes place every day more and more could lead to decreasing the grounding system s effectively. By increasing the grounding impedance could appear interference’s and disturbances in signals and measuring date, what depends from the working frequency and dimensions of the grounding.

<p><img alt="vorgucic-1" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-1.jpg" height="200" width="142" /></p>
<p>VORGUCIC, ALEKSANDAR D.Sc. Professor (retired) University of Nis, Faculty of Electronic Engineering.</p>
<p>e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. </p>
<p>Born on February 7, 1930 in Nis (Serbia); Spouse Desanka Prof. Librarian., Doughter Jasmina D.stomatology, Son-in-law Bratislav D. stomatology (dec) and two granddaughters, Aleksandra and Katarina. Parents Dragoljub and Radmila (both dec.).</p>
<p><strong>Education</strong>: Dipl.Ing.Electrrical Engineering ’57. and Habilitation ’63. Univesity of Belgrad, D.sc ’73,University of Nis, High Technical Education 1961 UNESCO, London.</p>
<p><strong>Professional activities</strong>: Electrical Science Institutin Beograd (‘57-‘60), Electronic Industry Nis (‘48-’52.;’60-’61); Professor University Beograd, University Nis, University Novi Sad (1960-1997), Visiting Professor GA Institute of Technology Atlanta (’77 – ’78).</p>
<p><strong>Membership</strong>: Yugoslav Inst.Mech.&amp;Elect.Engrg., Yugoslav Com.Geoelectricity &amp; Lightning Protection (JKG), President Sub Com. JKG Serbia.</p>
<p><strong>Honors</strong>: Award City of Nis, 1970.; Meritorious Member JKG 1975; Awards Univ.Nis 1975 &amp; 1980., Electronic Faculty Nis 1969, Mechanical Faculty 1974, Gt.Award Univ.Nis 1990., International Man Year 1992/93 &amp; 1995/96. Oxford GB. ; Five Thousand Personality of the World 1995 (ABI – USA).</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<h3>CREATIVE WORKS</h3>
<h2>A. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING</h2>
<p>a. More than 30 papers about new <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="#link1">supersensitive electrical bridge</a></span> circuits, the most sensitive bridge circuits so far.</p>
<p>b. More than 35 papers about a new theory of the <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="#link2">protecting spaces of the Lightning rod</a></span> and process’s in Lightning Channel.</p>
<p>c. More than 20 papers of electrical resistivity of <span style="text-decoration: underline;"><a href="#link3">concrete and impulse earthing resistance</a></span> invesigation.</p>
<p>d. 18 Books, Textbooks &amp; Aux. Books, and numerous other works and papers in electrical circuits, instruments and antennas.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<h2>B. DOWSING (RADIESTHESY)</h2>
<p>There is a serious problem in front of us, problem which is still not out studied. The reason for that is not its just appearing or that was not time for its studying, but the reason is, it seems, that the man is not grown up, or is not able to solve this problem. The problem is of the Geopathogenic influences, which exist some more thousands years. The Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Spending more times in such zones leads to weakening of organsm and appearing illnesses. Because the nature of the the Geopathogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring. GPZ like the zones of natural influence (“radiation”) can to detect only particulary persons (ESP – Extra sensory perception). Extra perception of those persons gives them opportunity to find out the sources of this “radiation” with the convenient sensors (Dowse). This phenomenon is called Radiesthesy (Dowsing). It was observed that in some houses people get ill and die more frequently than in others in the same district. Also it was marked that more generations died on the same bad from the same illness. Namely, the longer stay in such GPZ acts destructively to the all tissues, brings to the pathological changes on organisms or organs and diseases appear. These organic modifications are slow and depends also upon the sensitivity of an organism, which looses function and dies. It is clear that here other factors have influences too. The first preliminary results of the attempt at physical measuring the GPZ appeared on March 1997 when was in organization University of Nis Promotion: “The first results of the objective measuring Geopathogenic zones so far”, (Prof. A.Vorgucic)</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><strong>My investigation in this fields are given in three main directions:</strong></p>
<p><strong>a.</strong> The first investigation was made in connection with the chronic renal diseases in the endemic regions - Endemic Nephropathy. This is example of a long time ( more years) spending in geopathogenic zones.</p>
<p>Some of papers:</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>1. A.Vorgucic, V.Momcilovic, SOME RESULTS OF RESEARCH ON ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Proc. of the 6th Symposium on Endemic (Balkan) Nephropathy, Nis,1987.</p>
<p>From summary : The ongoing research on etiology of endemic nephropathy (EN), which leads to the chronic renal failure (CRF), is taking place about thirty years. As it is well known, the presence of the disease is hidden and it takes a lot of time before it could be discovered by the irreversible changes of the kidney function and the tissue. The foci of EN are along the rivers and the territories reach with flowing waters...</p>
<p>The research results show that the all observed and described cases the disease attacked the persons who were exposed for a long time to the influence of underground water flow, i.e. the persons whose beds were located over the underground water flow. The results of this research may give an answer to the question or enigma why the EN is mosaiclly spread.</p>
<p>Although the number of described cases in this preliminary research is relatively small, the fact is, that the all, without exemption, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of geopathogenic zones (underground flowing water). This research should be continued and connected with some other emerging factors.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>2. A.Vorgucic, SOME SUGGESTION FOR THE FURTHER RESEARCH ON ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Proc. 4th Congers of the Nephrologist Yugoslav, Skopje, 1989.</p>
<p>From abstract: A suggestion for a further research on EN is given in this paper. The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to the research of the simultaneous influence factors one of which is known. The known influencing factor is geophatogenic zones of the underground flowing waters, which with its own “radiation” act destructively to the human body. This radiation could be easily detected. In this a manner the research of the other influencing factors would drastically get narrower.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>3. A.Vorgucic, PREVENTION POSSIBILITY OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Proc. BANTAO- First Scientific Meeting (Congress), Varna (Bulg), 1995.(Paper 72).</p>
<p>Abstract: In all investigation of diseases in the endemic territories, one of the main enigma is appearing the location of diseases in shape of the mosaic. It means that the falling ill are not included all the houses, or in one family does not fall ill all the members, although all of them lives tougether, they take the same food, drink the same water and they breathe the same air.</p>
<p>The second conclusion, for the appearing the Endemic Nephropathy (EN) is necessary a exposition of long duration (more years) to unknown "agency" and the abandonment the living place in time, or in the early childhood, reliable protects from diseases.</p>
<p>Investigations on EN, which the author realized, on the principle different from uses, pointed at the all, without acceptation, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of the geopathogenic zones (probably unknown "agency").</p>
<p>In the announcement, like idea, the suggestion for the prevention the appearing of the EN will be given. This is possible, in endemic districts, only by dislocation of the beds and stationer working places from the relative narrow geophatogenic zones, which with its influence, weakness organism and can bring to appear the diseases. It is not necessary the abandonment the living place.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>4. A.Vorgucic, PROPOSAL FOR CONTINUAL EXPLORATION OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, ibid. Varna (Bulg),1995. (Paper 73).</p>
<p>From abstract: A suggestion for further research on EN is give in this announcement. The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to the research of the simultaneous influence factors (two or more), one which is known. The known influencing factor are geophatogenic zones of the underground waters, which with its own "radiation’s" acts destructively to the human body. This first factor, geophatogenic zones, could be easily detected. In this manner the research of the other influencing factors would drastically get narrower. Some suggestions for the further research on EN would be given, according subproject SANU (Serb Academy of Science and Art), "Exploration influences of Geophatogenic Zones like Catalyst of Causer of Endemic Nephropathy".</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>5. A.Vorgucic, GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AS CATALYST OF ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, BANTAO – Second Congress, Struga. R.Macedonia, 1997.</p>
<p>From abstract: The Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms.</p>
<p>Spending more time in such zones, leads to weakening of organism and appearing illnesses. Because the nature of the Geophatogenic influences zones is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring.</p>
<p><strong>Investigations on Endemic Nephropathy (EN), which the author realized, pointed the fact, that all, without exemption, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of GPZ (underground flowing waters).</strong></p>
<p>The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to research of the simultaneous influence factors (two or more), one which is known and it is GPZ like CATALYST.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>6. A.D.Vorgučić, X + Y + t = ENDEMIC NEPHROPATHY, Symposium “New trends in nephrology”, Med.A.N &amp;. SLD Niš, jun 2013.</p>
<p>The research of the causes of appearing of EN, in the endemic regions, should be directed to research of the simultaneous influence factors (in this paper): X Characteristic of an endemic area, Y supplementary influential for the disease and t the incubation time.</p>
<p>In conclusion, the study deals with the prevention, detection of potential patients, the study of the early stages of the disease, and this has enabled the knowledge that the impact factor of Y are geopathogenic zones. These effects do not belong to the physical fields.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><strong>b.</strong> Further investigation are in connection with the instantaneous (suddenly) action the geopathogenic zones. This influence appears like the traffic accidents. The appearing of visions (hallucinations) is also possible in such a cases.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>Some of papers:</p>
<p>1. Vorgucic A., Jovanovic J., Milovanovic Lj., THE GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES INFLUENCE ON THE TRAFFIC SECURITY, Proc. YU Traffic medicine, Nis, 1994.</p>
<p>From abstract: This paper points at the Traffic accidents, which occurs absolutely unexpected, on the part of fully straight road, out of cross-road, out of enclosing road. The cars, without any reason, turn, strike to the fence, electrical - telephone pole or wehicle on the road. Preliminary investigation on such places, which lead the Laboratory for physical radiesthesy Electronic faculty in Nis, Institution for working medicine in Nis and Section of traffic polic in Nis, point out on geopathogenic zones like the most probable cause such a traffic accidents.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>2. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AND TRAFIC ACCIDENT, - invited paper-, Proc. 9th YU Congress of Working Medicine, Nis, 1997.</p>
<p>From abstract: This paper pointed at traffic accidents which occurs absolutely unexpectedly, on the part of fully straight road, out of cross-road and out of enclosing rod. For such a accidents in reports says "For unknown reasons". Our investigations in this direction, pointed at the geophatogenic zones like the most possible cause such traffic troubles. The driver reaction and the uncontrolled car turning aside in this paper is explained by the recent discovered hastily falling the frequency and great amplitude increasing of the brain waves by crossing in the geopathogenic zone. Such big frequency falling and suddenly amplitude increasing does not occurs always and is stipulate also with some other influences but always in the geopathogenic zones.</p>
<p>In the paper are also given the results of the last investigation the numerous traffic accidents on the road Ohrid - Struga in R.Macedonia, close by monastery St.Erazmo. Only on one place on the road for 20 years was 1320 accidents "for unknown reason" with 68 dead and about 900 injured.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><strong>c.</strong> Like general question in connection with the nature the geopathogenic influences, and attempting of measuring in other words detection’s the geopathogenic zones, the next investigation are presented with some papers:</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>l. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AND THEIR INFLUENCE – invited paper-, 5th International Scientific Meeting PIIT 94, Nis,1994.</p>
<p>Abstract: The paper deals with the natural phenomena which negative effects were found on man, animals as well as plants. This negative influence originates from underground flowing waters and geological clefts and are called geophatogenic zones. The nature of geopathogenic zones is still unknown and there fore does not exist the instruments for its objective measure. Because the man with his radiestesics ability is only detect of geopathogenic zones there is spoken about radiesthesic. They are mentioned longtime influence on persons and appearing illness and also is mentioned the effect of its instant activity.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>2. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES AND BRAIN WAVES, invited paper –5th Int. Conference for Urban Ecology, Pirot – Temska, May 1997.</p>
<p>From abstract: The first preliminary results of the attempt at physical measuring the geophatogenic zones are given in this paper. The geophatogenic zones are the influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Because the nature of the geophatogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring. Here the first preliminary results measuring the geophatogenic zone influence on the brain wave frequency are given. <strong>So this is the first physical measuring of the geophatogenic zones so far.</strong></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>3. Vorgucic A., ROLE THE CONTEMPRORARY GEOMANT IN ARCHITECT PROJECTING, ibid., Temska, 1997.</p>
<p>Abstract: In this paper are given the results of investigation the residential objects like and some cases working places in connection with appearance miscellaneous diseases causal with the geopathogenic zones. The geopathogenic zones appears from underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which negative influences on the living organisms. Like usual praxis by construction objects in China the convenient places for building, determinate, particular sensitive persons – geomants -. In order to avoid the negative influence the geopathogenic zones, propose the selection positive location the objects, before construction, and on the base the measuring the determinate geopathogenic zones. Also, suggest, by already constructed objects dislocation the critical working and residential places. In the paper are shown the critical objects with many geopathogenic zones with many cases cancers, leukemia and other diseases.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>4. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC FIELDS – EFFECTS AND MEASUREMENT, - invited paper -, 6th Int. SAUM Conference, Nis, 1998.</p>
<p>Abstract: There is a serious problem in front of us, problem which is still not out studied. The reason for that is not its just appearing or that was not time for its studding, but the reason is, it seems, that the man is not grown up, or is not able to solve this problem. The problem is of the Geopathogenic influences, which exist some more thousands years.</p>
<p>Now the possibility of the detection the Geopathogenic influences legalizes its existence, enable attaint introduction in physical fields, and performs challenge for further research and development. The Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are influencing zones of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Spending more time in such zones leads to weakening of organism and appearing illnesses. Because the nature of the Geopathogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring.</p>
<p>GPZ like the zones of natural influence ("radiation") can to detect only particularly persons (ESP - Extra sensory perception). Extra perception of those persons gives them opportunity to find out the sources of this "radiation" with the convenient sensors (Dowser). This phenomenon is called Radiesthesy and method of the detection of the "radiation" source the radiesthesic method (UDK 550.87 - biological and physical methods in geology). It was observed that in some houses people get ill and die more frequently than in others in the same district. Also it was marked that more generations died on the same bad from the same illness. Namely, the longer stay in such GPZ acts destructively to all tissues, brings to the pathological changes on organisms or organs and diseases appear. These organic modifications are slow and depends also upon the sensitivity of an organism, which looses function and dies. It is clear that here other factors can have influences too.</p>
<p>The paper pointed also at traffic accidents which occurs absolutely unexpectedly, on the part of fully straight road, out of cross-road and out of enclosing rod. or such a accidents in reports says "for unknown reasons". Our investigations in this direction, pointed at the GPZ like most possible cause such traffic troubles.</p>
<p>The first preliminary results of the attempt at physical measuring the GPZ appeared on 27 March 1997. when was in organization University of Nis and Electronic faculty Promotion"The first results the objective measuring Geopathogenic zones so far" (author A. Vorgucic). Hypothesis that the persons with ESP (Dowsers) in the GPZ transit in lower frequency band of the brain waves, was experimental approved.</p>
<p>Measuring EEG (Electroencephalogram) was made on very sensitive medium in normal awaked condition with the open eyes. The measuring results on more then 70 pages diagrams f(t), are presented very simple with the diagram of the instantaneous the medium brain frequency change entering and outgoing in and from GPZ.</p>
<p>On the diagram it could be seen the hastily frequency change by crossing in and out GPZ. And at the end, the existence of Geopathogenic influences (fields) could be now physically registered, on the paper with changing the brain wave frequency.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>5. Vorgucic A., PENETRATION INTO UNREACHED, 5th Int. Conference – TELSIKS 2001, Nis, Yuoslavia, sept. 2001. pp. 349-52.</p>
<p>Abstract: The first preliminary results to attempt at objective physical detection (measuring) the geopathogenic zones are given in this paper. The geopathogenic zones are the influencing spaces of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. Because the nature of geopathogenic influences is unknown so far, there are hitherto no instruments for its detection and measuring. Here the first preliminary results objective detection the geopathogenic zones influence on the brain wave frequencies are given. So this is the first physical detection of the geopathogenic influence zones so far.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>6. Vorgucic A., GEOPATHOGENIC FIELDS ? MEASURING AND CHALLENGE, 7 th Int.Conference On Applied Electromagnetics PES 2005, Nis 2005.</p>
<p>EXTENDED ABSTRACT</p>
<p>Abstract: The first preliminary results to attempt at objective physical detection the geopathogenic zones are given in this paper. The geopathogenic zones are the influencing spaces of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts, which have negative effects on living organisms. The first measuring the geopathogenic influence confirms its reality and with this the first step and the first penetration in this thousands years known but still unreached field. Keywords: Geopath.zones, Brain waves, Dowsing</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>INTRODUCTION</p>
<p>In this paper is given one of the first relatively successful attempt the objective detection the hard reached but for a long time known phenomena. These phenomena are the harmful influence of the underground flowing waters and geological clefts. Although these phenomena are known for a very long time, more thousand years, they are still not out studied. The reason for that is not its just appearing or that was not time for its studying, but the reason is, it seems, that the man is not grown up, or is not able to solve this problem. The phenomenon is the influences of underground flowing waters – geopathogenic influences named Geopathogenic zones (GPZ). There was no systematic study of such phenomena in the new age, when the science developed very fast. But the phenomenon exist. I would like here mention only a very interesting, most ambitious experiment sponsored of a German government, ten year project to test and apply dowsing methods to locate water sources in ariad regions. It involved over 2000 drillings in Sri Lanka, Zaire, Kenya, Nambia, Yemen and other contries [1].</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>GEOPATHOGENIC ZONES</p>
<p>Geopathogenic zones (GPZ) are still insufficiently researched biological active form of an influence, which in form of radiation effects harmfully, not only on man but on the whole herbal and animal world. Underground flowing waters, let us term “radiates” its negative influence vertically upward and also somewhat weakly under determinate angels. This is very similar to radiation of antenna system, which in addition to the main leaf of radiation has also secondary lateral leaves which are symmetrical according to the main leaf.</p>
<p>As an example of negative effect of GPZ let us cite some researches. In the Introduction of the paper [2] stays: “The collection of problems involved with active earthiness attracts bigger and bigger attention. Negative effects of pathogenic earth-zone were found on man, animals as well as plants”, and further in Conclusion: “The effects of underground waters are fairly strong and the response of plants is quite obvious. Generally spoken, the effected plants are shorter, dwarfish, deformed, they bring lower yields, get yellow color, dry up, the whole parts of stool die out“. In a part of the Conclusion the paper [3] about the investigation of endemic nephropathy stay: “. Although the number of described cases in this preliminary research is relatively small, the fact is, that the all, without exemption, either ill or dead were directly exposed to the influence of geopethogenic zone (underground flowing waters)”. Research on the appearing the arthritis, which performed Herbert Douglas in Vermont [4] in one district shows that the beds of the all sick persons were located exclusively in the geopathogenic zones underground flowing waters. For the explored area he registered 60 cases of arthritis, 20 cases of cancer and 9 cases of cataract.</p>
<p>In addition to slowly and long duration exercise of geopathogenic influence, it can also action instantaneous and unexpected. This is noticed in the traffic accidents. Paper [5] pointed at traffic accidents which occurs absolutely unexpectedly, on the part of straight road, out of cross-road and out of enclosing rod. For such an accidents in reports (newspapers) says “for unknown reasons”. The nature of geopatogenic influences (GPZ) is completely unknown. The GPZ keep its width and penetrates through all materials (iron, lead, concrete and others) without noticed drooping but with a reservation, at least on the space where we are living and where we are moving.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>RADIESTHESY – DISPOSITION GPZ</p>
<p>GPZ like the zones of the natural influence (“radiation) could be detected only by the particular persons sensitive on the these influences. Extra perception of these persons gives them opportunity to find out the sources of this “radiation”, with the convenient sensor (Dowse). This phenomenon is called Radiesthesy and the method of detection of the “radiation” source is called the radiesthesic method (UDK 550.80 – biological and physical methods in geology).</p>
<p>The nature of these geopathogenic influences on the dowsers is still absolutely unknown. There are numerous questions about GPZ and it is a big challenge to study these phenomena. The dowsing rod is an instrument with the greatest challenge.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>HYPOTHESIS AND RESULTS</p>
<p>Idea for this research is originated like collision of the two observations. On one side it was noticed thatthe little children up to 4 years old, who are naturally sensitive on the dangerous geopathogenic zones and escape them. On the other side, the brain waves frequency of little children is very low, up to 4 Hz and belongs to the group delta waves. Bringing these facts into connectionsthe author got the new hypothesis. The first preliminary results of the attempt at a objective detection GPZ appeared through the “Promotion first results objective measuring of the GPZ so far”, with the lecture “Geopathogenic Zones and Their Influences” – author Prof. Dr Aleksandar D. Vorgucic, in organization University of Nis on March 1997. These first experimental proving of preliminary results confirmed the placed hypothesis about decreasing the brain waves frequency in GPZ on the ESP persons (dowsers).</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-2" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-2.jpg" height="319" width="400" /></p>
<p>Fig. 1. Brain wave frequency change on ESP person by crossing in and out GPZ</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><strong>The experimental results on more then 70 pages diagrams v(t) are presented very simple with the diagram of the instantaneous medium brain wave frequency change entering in and out going from GPZ as is shown in Fig. 1. On the diagram the hastily frequency change by crossing from the one into the other zone could be seen.</strong></p>
<p>These results have been presented in paper [6] on the International Conference, with experimental proof of the existence of geopathogenic influences, which at present could be physically registered, on paper, with the help of EEG like the changing of the brain waves frequency.</p>
<p>Only on the one diagram of the brain waves, between plenty of them, it was noticed a very storm reaction of the brain. From the unknown reason, when the medium entered into GPZ the brain wave frequency abruptly decreased and amplitude increased, something like by epilepsy attack or the deep sleeping. The picture diagram of brain waves for this case is shown on Fig. 2. With this it is now possible to explain the traffic accidents, which occurs on the roads where the vehicle had turned “for unknown reasons”.</p>
<p>So with these measuring the geopatogenic influence and obtained results is made the first step i.e. first penetration in this thousands years known but still unreached field so far /7/.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-3" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-3.jpg" height="353" width="500" /></p>
<p>Fig.2. Special case of abrupt change of the Brain wave frequency.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>ABOUT PHYSICAL FIELDS</p>
<p>Each physical field is a space in which feels influence of the field source. According to this here is made the attempt that the geopathogenic influence spaces can consider at present like a kind of a new physical field. Generally, the forces which affects outside border of matter are calling action-at-a-distance or usually field forces. The influence of the underground flowing water (GPZ) as it was mentioned, could be now detected, watch confirms its reality and its existence. This could be now seen as instantaneous decreasing the brain wave frequency entering in and increasing leaving the influence zone (Fig.1).. For a further study of sensors and instrumentation for measuring such a fields ought to mention that this field have not obstruct and are similar to gravitation fields transits trough all materials. Probably if its observed some material with some considerable absorption, that would bring to some more suitable sensors.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>CONCLUSION</p>
<p>Existention the influential spaces of the underground flowing waters, long ago known with its negative effects are proved, with objective detection. Here is made one attempt that these mentioned influences spaces consider as field – Geopathogenic field. The first objective detection of geopathogenic fields is performed by measuring the abrupt decreasing the brain wave frequency by crossing in and increasing by outgoing the GPZ. Further study on this matter is a big challenge, but it should be have in mind that “The way of thousandth miles, starts with the firs step”, and the first step is already done.</p>
<p>REFERENCES</p>
<p>[1] Batz H.D., “Unconventional Water Detection”, Journal of Scientific Exploration Stanford University, Stanford.Ca. March 1995.</p>
<p>[2] Salatova M., “Effects of Active Earth Zones on Plants cultivated in Gardners Establishments”, 6th Int.Conf.on Psychotronic Research, Zgreb, pp. 156-159, 1986.</p>
<p>[3] Vorgucic A., Momcilovic V.,” Neki Rezultati Istrazivanja Endemske Nefropatije”, (Some Results of Research on Endemic Nephropathy ), 6th Symp.on Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, Med.AN, SLD, Niska Banja, pp.187-197. 1987</p>
<p>[4] Douglas H..,” Dowsing: can it cure arthritis ? “ in The Banner, May 1978.</p>
<p>[5] Vorgucic A..,”Geopatogene zone i saobra}ajni udesi” (The Geopathogenic Zones and Trafic Accidents), IX Jugoslovenski Kongres medicine rada, Ni{, 1997.</p>
<p>[6] Vorgucic A, “Geopathogenic Zones and Brain Waves”, V Int. Conference for Urban Ecology, Pirot-Temska, Maj 1997</p>
<p>[7] Vorgucic A, “Penetration into Unreached”, 5th International Conference TELSIKS 2001, Nis 2001, pp. 349-52. Also printed in Microwave Rewie No 2, Vol.7, Sept.2001., pp.46-49.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<hr />
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><a name="link1"></a></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>A – a. SUPERSENSITIVE ELECTRICAL BRIDGES</p>
<p>Forearm Bridge</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-4" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-4.jpg" height="254" width="400" /></p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-5" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-5.jpg" height="307" width="400" /></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><math display="block"> <mrow> <mi>relative sensitivity: S</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <!-- Start Numerator --> <mrow><mi>δVcd</mi></mrow> <!-- Start Denominator --> <mrow> <mn>δξ</mn></mrow> </mfrac> <mfrac> <!-- Start Numerator --> <mrow><mi>ξ</mi></mrow> <!-- Start Denominator --> <mrow> <mn>Vab</mn></mrow> </mfrac> </mrow> </math></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>Maximal sensitivities of the some typical electrical bridges</p>
<p>Supersensitive bridges:</p>
<p>a) frequency independent (Vorgucic, 1980.);</p>
<p><math display="block"><mrow> <mi>S</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mi>Q</mi><msqrt> <mrow> <msup><mi>Q</mi><mn>2</mn></msup><mo>+</mo><mn>1</mn></mrow> </msqrt> </mrow></math></p>
<p style="text-align: left;">10000 (sensitivity for Q = 100)</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>b) frequency dependent (Vorgucic, 1973.);</p>
<p style="text-align: left;"><math display="block"> <mrow> <mi>S</mi> <mo>=</mo> <mfrac> <!-- Start Numerator --> <mrow><msup><mi>Q</mi><mn>2</mn></msup></mrow> <!-- Start Denominator --> <mrow> <mn>2</mn></mrow></mfrac></mrow></math>5000 (sensitivity for Q = 100)</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>Multivibrator bridge (Macher, 1967.) - 1</p>
<p>Double and some AC bridges (Field,1931.; Tutll,1940.) - 0,5</p>
<p>Other bridges (Wheatstone 1843, Maxwell 1873., Wien 1891, Hay 1910., Robinson 1924, Kurokawa 1924 and others) - 0,25</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>The supersensitive bridges are a new group of bridge circuits – the most sensitive bridges circuits so far. Sensitivity of those bridges, using ordinary elements, is two order (102) of magnitude higher then classical resonance bridge and four order (104) of magnitude higher then sensitivity of other classical bridges. Although, schematic very simple, the supersensitive bridges results from a deep study of the measuring bridge sensitivity. The first supersensitive frequency dependent bridge, called double resonance bridge, appeared after a new expression and a new graphical method for sensitivity of forearm bridge. The study of balance line for classical and double resonance bridges brought about the new frequency independent bridges, more simple and more sensitive ones.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>Some of papers:</p>
<p>1. Vorgucic A., DIE EMPFINDLICHKEIT VON REAKTANZBRUECKEN ZUR FREQUENZUEBERWCHUNG UND FREQUENZMESSUNG, Nachrichtentechnik, 20, No.3, Berlin, 1970.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>Zusamenfassung: Die Reaktanzbruecken haben die besondere Eingeschaft, dass dieEmpfindlichkeit mehrere Male groeser ist als die Empfindlichkeit der bis jetzt fuer die Frequenzmessung benutzten Bruecken. Sie sind genauer, weil nur ein Element veraenderlich ist und weil sie einen begrenzteren Frequenzbereich bei Veraunderung der variablen Elemente haben. Weiterhin koenen die Reaktanzbruecken sehr wirkungsvoll fuer die Frequenzueberwachung benutzt werdwn. In diesen Bruecken koenen Spulen verwendet werden, da die Faktor Q die Empfindlichkeit der Bruekcken nichi sehr beeinflusst. Spulen mit einem Guetenfaktor von etwa 100 sind Spulen normaler Produktion, so dass es bei den Reaktanzbruecken nicht notwendig ist, sich nach Specialelementen umzuschauen.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>2. Vorgucic A., DOUBLE RESONANCE BRIDGE, Electron Lett. No 18, 9, 1973.</p>
<p>From abstract: The letter deals with a group of frequency – dependent bridges with high sensitivities, and particularly with a new bridge that has optimum sensitivity. It is suggested that it be termed double – resonance bridge.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>3. Vorgucic A., LOCUS DIAGRAMS IN DOUBLE RESONANCE BRIDGE, Proc. 3rd International. Symp. on Network Theory, Split, 1975.</p>
<p>From abstract: The paper deals with locus diagrams in double resonance bridge. The locus diagrams are convenient in studding processes of balancing and convergence of bridges. The potential points and locus diagrams for classical bridges for measuring impedance and frequency are in a part of the complex plane of the potential. This part is limited by a circle the diameter of which equals applied voltage. The new double resonance bridge is the most sensitive bridge so far. The sensitivity ( ) is Q times higher than the till now most sensitive classical resonance bridge ( ). The locus diagram of double resonance bridge, and only in these bridges are in the entire, unlimited, complex plane of the potential. There are given equations for locus diagrams when varies quantities like frequency of applied voltage and elements in the bridge.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>4. Vorgucic A., GENERAL EQUATIONS FOR THE SENSITIVITY OF FOUR ARM A.C. BRIDGES, Meteorologia (YU), No 4, 1976.</p>
<p>From summary: The paper presents the definitions for absolute and relative sensitivities of electrical bridges. A suitable equation was developed for the sensitivity of four arm bridges for frequency control and measurement. By introducing a generalized variable the equation becomes a general expression for four arm bridge sensitivity.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>5. Vorgucic A., Wallace J., LOCI OF EQUAL SENSITIVITY IN A.C. BRIDGES, Proc.of Southereastercon 78, Symp.IEEE, Atlanta, 1978.</p>
<p>From abstract: This paper presents, for the three-element, forearm bridge, equations and loci of equal sensitivity found by changing bridge elements. This new plot, found by changing the single – element arm, complements previously published material which was developed on the basis of changes in two 1 element arms. This complete family of equal sensitivity plots facilitates the analysis and optimum sensitivity design at modern a.c. bridge.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>6. A.Vorgucic, SUPERSENSITIVE BRIDGE CIRCUIRS, Proc. 2nd. Int. Symp. Theoretische Elektrotechnik Ilmenau (DDR), 1983.</p>
<p>From abstract: This paper deals with a new group of the bridge circuits – the most sensitive bridges so far. Sensitivity of this bridges, using ordinary elements, is two order of magnitude higher than classical bridges. Although, schematic very simple, the supersensitive bridges results from a deep study of the measuring bridge sensitivity. The first supersensitive frequency dependent bridge, called double resonance bridge appeared after a new expression and new graphical method for sensitivity of four arm bridges. The study of balance lines for classical and supersensitive bridges brought about the new frequency independent bridges more simple and more sensitive ones.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>7. A.D.Vorgucic, EXTREME SENSITIVE BRIDGE CIRCUITS, Congress of Metrology, Beograd, May 2003.</p>
<p>Abstract: This paper deals with a new group of the electrical bridge circuits the most sensitive so far. Sensitivities of these bridges, using ordinate elements, could be some order of magnitude higher then the other classical bridges. Although, very simple, the new supersensitive bridges results from a deep study of the bridge circuits sensitivity. The first frequency dependent supersensitive bridge appeared after a new expression and a new graphical method for the four arm bridges sensitivity. On the new graphical presentation could be seen the areas of low and high sensitivities. The supersensitive bridges originated by putting the bridge working point in area of high, by this presentation, which was empty so far. Further study of vector diagrams in the complex plane of potential brought to the new frequency independent bridge more sensitive and more simple one. This one is convenient for capacity and inductance control.</p>
<p>The less are the losses in elements, the higher is sensitivity, for ideal elements the sensitivity is unlimited.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-6" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-6.jpg" height="386" width="500" /></p>
<p>New diagram of sensitivity bridge circuits.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-7" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-7.jpg" height="290" width="500" /></p>
<p>Relative sensitivity for different ratio C2/C1</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-8" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-8.jpg" height="440" width="305" /></p>
<p>Vector diagram for Double resonance frequency dependent bridge</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;8. A.Vorgucic, GENESIS THE ELECTRICAL BRIDGE CIRCUITS OF EXTREME SENSITVITY – SINGULAR BEHAVIOR. –XI International Conf. SAUM 2012.</p>
<p>Introduction of new ideas, observations, and methods it is possible to achieve very large and theoretically unlimited infinite sensitivity.</p>
<p>The new diagram enabled the author to achieve extreme sensitivity bridge circuits. The first such bridge frequency dependent have sensitivity S= Q2/2. Using the circular and locus diagrams, author came an even more sensitive frequency independent bridge circuits ( S = Q2 ).</p>
<p>Infinite sensitivity of these bridges can theoretically be achieved by entering the working point into a singular point, according the given new diagram. But impossible, since entering in the singular point (a real singularity) performs overall short-circuit and the collapse of system. This is analogous to the situation in the universe, at the last stage in the life of stars. The emergence of "black holes" - compression of matter to one point (singular point) results in collapse and disappearance of the star.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<hr />
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><a name="link2"></a></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<h2>A – b PROTECTING SPACES OF THE LIGHTNING ROD</h2>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-9" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-9.jpg" height="378" width="500" /></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>The purpose of the lightning rod, vertical conductive rod, is to protect the disposed surface on the earth from the lightning stroke, so to cause all strikes on its top, was introduced by Franklin in the year 1873. The lightning rod protective zones were generally determinate on observations and experience. But this observations differed from place to place, what could be seen from heterogeneous different national regulations in connection with lightning protection. Further research and observation pointed out that the discharge over lightning occurs in successive strikes. Those strikes comes one after another over same channel which is ionized with the first strike. Strike number in one lightning flash could be over 20, but most are 3 to 5. Every strike has its introductory discharge which is named leader. The first introductory discharge, which transports negative electrical charge from cloud to the earth is stepped. The leader spark starts from cloud, crosses some way and stops., and after short time interval continue to move. The length of each step is about 100 m. It seems that the lightning with its first leader looks for the most convenient way for the main discharge and therefor curved and broken form the lightning cannel. In this stage originates the branches of spark. Striking point of the lightning is not by anything determinate in advance at the beginning leader moving, but on the end when leader approaches to the earth, on about hundred meters. This distance is called “striking distance”, which depends, generally, on the electrical charge in the leader channel, when the leader approaches enough to the object or earth (on striking distance) due to electrical charge deposited in leader channel an electrical field on the object or earth exceeds critical value, starts positive connecting streamer (return stroke) with the velocity of about 5x107 m/s, which connects striking point (on object or earth) with the tip of the downmoving leader. After completing the first strike, with the pause of about 30 ms comes second, third and other strikes. Each of this has also two discharges processes, introductory and the main. The leaders of the second and other strikes are not stepped but continual and they quickly moves trough the already ionized channel with previous strikes.</p>
<p>New and new lightning strokes on the objects already protected, specially at high structure, makes conviction, that there is no absolutely sure lightning protection. The better knowledge of atmospheric electrical discharge, in the recent time, lead to the new vision and new theories. The development of new theories, which includes numerous protected spaces around one lightning rod, allows better evaluation of the protected spaces of the lightning rod. Based on the “electrogeometric” theory, evaluated a new method of the more protected spaces of the lightning rod depending of the crest current of the lightning stroke. If the leader approaches a long vertical rod or a tall structure, it will be struck at a point on the structure or earth on the shortest distance from the leader tip, which is equal to the striking distance. The striking distance depends on the charge in the leader channel, namely lightning crest current D = f(I). The radius of protecting zone for each current is equal to the striking distance. The structure has smaller protected space for lower lightning current and reverse. According to the principal of the “shortest distance”, protected space is inside the cone which has circle shaped envelope radius proximate equal to the striking distance.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-10" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-10.jpg" height="276" width="500" /></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>The new version of the protected area (Vorgucic 1978.)</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>Some of papers:</p>
<p>1. Vorgucic A., CONDITION FOR EVALUTION OF THE PROTECTING ZONE OF THE LIGHTNING ROD, Proc. FAA/GT Workshop on grounding and Lightning protection, Atlanta, 1978.</p>
<p>Abstract: The height of a lightning rod is not the only determining parameter of the protecting zone. More complete evaluation of the protecting zone requires knowledge of the value of lightning current, which depends on physicogeographic properties of a given area.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>2. Vorgucic A., ESTIMATE OF THE PROTECTION OF AREA WITH LONG VERTICAL LIGHTNING RODS, Tehnika (YU), No 1., 1979.</p>
<p>From abstract: The paper gives a new vision of the protected areas covered by long vertical lightning rods and of high objects. A solitary vertical lightning rod has many different protection zones, each of them being defined mainly by the maximal current of lightning. As lightning currents depend on the geo-physical conditions of the region we want to protect, for estimate of the area protected by lightning rod it is necessary to know the values of lightning current for the given region.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>3. Vorgucic A., Mladenovic I., EXPOSITION TO THE LIGHTNING CURRENT OF OBJECTS SITUATED NEAR THE VERTICAL LIGHTNING ROD, Proc. 10th International Aerospace and Grounding Conference on Lightning and Static Electricity (ICOLSE), Paris, 1985.</p>
<p>From abstract: In the paper is given the method of estimating, namely, the determining the maximum value of lightning current an object or equipment could be exposed to, when placed to the lightning rod or any other object having the function of the lightning rod. This estimation of possible maximum value of lightning current a lower object is exposed to, is based on the evolution of the more protected spaces of lightning rod. The maximum value of the lightning current an equipment or a object could be exposed to, is the function of the lightning rod, the dimensions of the object and their reciprocal distance.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>4. Vorgucic A., LIGHTNING DISCHARGE INFLUENCE ON THE ELECTRONIC DEVICES, 2nd International Symposium of Applied Electrostatics (PES’86), Nis,1985.</p>
<p>From abstract : The paper pointed out the great influence of the lightning discharge on the electronic devices and systems. Beside destroying from direct stroke, great importance has also indirect stroke over electrical and magnetic fields, which comes from much broader district and so are destroings, demagings and disturbances more frequent. It is also pointed out the disturbance on electronic system over grounding system.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>5. Vorgucic A., Mladenovic I., SOME CONSIDERATION ABOUT STRIKING DISTANCE, 19th Blitzschutzkonferenz, Graz, 1988.</p>
<p>From abstract: The numerical values of the striking distances is usually verify from the photos of the lightning channel. Unusually long striking distance, as is know, may be influenced by the positive space charge, produced by point discharge or prior upward flashes. In this paper is also pointed out on one more indefiniteness which may have influence in the estimation the striking distance from the lightning channel photos. By introducing two types of movement in the stepped leader it shows that influence is as much greater as the final jump takes place at the beginning of the last step of the stepped leader along the channel already prepared by the pilot streamer.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>6. Vorgucic A., Mladenovic I, A NEW APPROACH TO THE DETERMINATION OF THE STRIKING DISTANCE FROM THE LIGHTNING CHANNEL PHOTOS, International Aerospace and Grounding conference on Lightning and Static Electricity, Cocoa Beach (Florida), 1991.</p>
<p>From abstract : The paper is concerned with the emphasis of the possible influence the stepped leader movement on the value of the striking distance. The numerical values of the striking distances are most frequently verified from the lightning channel photos. There is some explanations for dispersion of the striking distance which appears specially on the tall structures. Unusually long striking distance, may be influenced by the positive space charge or prior upward flashes. One more indefiniteness which may have influence in estimation the striking distance is a complex charge motion in the leader channel. Through introduction of two types charge motion it is shown possible shortening of the striking distance seen on the lightning channel photos.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>7. Vorgucic A., THE INFLUENCE OF THE CONDUCTIVE RING ON THE EFFECTIVE HEIGHT OF THE LIGHTNING ROD, Facta Universitatis, Serie: Physics, Chemistry and Technology, Vol.1, No 4, Nis, 1997.</p>
<p>From abstract : In this paper the experimental results of the examination, on the model, the influence of the concentric, conductive circle ring position on the effective height of the vertical lightning rod are given. The effective height is determinate in relation to the vertical lightning rod without the ring. The height of the ring is changeable and was, in experiment, changed from zero to the height of the top the lightning rod. The investigation is performed for a normal discharge case with the negative downward leader and also for a reversed case, the positive discharge coming from the cloud. The results of the experiment pointed out on negative influence of the ring, namely on decreasing of the effective height, and that was expected.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<hr />
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><a name="link3"></a></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<h3>A–c CONCRETE AND IMPULSE EARTHING RESISTANCE</h3>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-11" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-11.jpg" height="345" width="500" /></p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>Because of more and more electrical power and higher and higher voltages in electrical systems the grounding presents still theoretical and practical problem in spite on the fact that the power frequency grounding of protective system is good defined. In addition it must be mention that in the grounding of lightning protective systems the striking earth resistance (impulse impedance) would not be measured but estimate from the steady-state earthling resistance determined by standard methods of measuring technique, geometry of grounding electrodes and resistively of surrounding soil. The purpose of earthing is to assure the way in the earth for electrical system power fault currents or lightning currents and to prevent appearance the voltage between arrangement and earth. Grounding system have to be able to dicipate in the earth the energy of the direct lightning stroke or others currents, in such a manner to remain able to receive the next strike. The system also have to, after lightning stroke, be able for a quality transmission of signals in the transmission networks of signals, which are connected on the grounding system.</p>
<p>Recently, very often foundation earth is in use, which results as consequence from: a) using more and more reinforced concrete i.e. using the metal in the objects, 2) the objects closeness in the settled places and c) plastic replacing the metal in the water and other installations used as an additional earth electrodes before. The mechanical properties of concrete are well known. But the electrical properties does not follow the mechanical properties. To make this question clear, we started to investigate the time dependence of electrical resistively of concrete. The long-term electrical resistively investigations shows that the concrete resistively increases permanently. The increasing of the concrete resistively is also for the concrete which is permanent in most soil.</p>
<p>The increasing concrete resistively after long time period could have considerable increasing of the foundation earth, what could a) lead to decreasing of the grounding system effectively b) the appearance the interference an the increased earthing impedance in higher frequency sisters with common earthing. The resistively increasing of concrete floors in industries where static electricity appears, could lead to the technological processes spoiling and the speed reduction of the production</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p><img alt="vorgucic-12" src="/images/katedre/teorijskaelektrotehnika/vorgucic/vorgucic-12.jpg" height="284" width="500" /></p>
<p>Some of papers:</p>
<p>1.Vorgucic A., EFFECT OF LIGHTNING CURRENT IMPULSE PARAMETERS ON EARTHING RESISTIVITY, Tehnika-Elektrotehnika (YU), No 7-8, 1975.</p>
<p>From abstract: Impact resistivity of an earthling system depends, in addition to the soil resistivity and earthling line length, included by the Regulations, to a large extent of the value of lightning current (due to sparking in the soil), as well as of the velocity of current encase. Since physic-geographic properties of a given territory have a great influence on the development of a dynamic atmospheric phenomena and values of lightning current impulse parameters, for the purpose of estimating the impact resistivity it is required to know the lightning current impulse parameters for the given territory.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>2. Vorgucic., ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF CONCRETE IN FOUNDATION EARTH, International Conference on Grounding, Lightning and Static Electricity, Fort Worth (Texas), 1983.</p>
<p>From abstract: The results of many ears research of the electrical resistivity change of concrete in connection with different grounding are presented. The examinations are made under different conditions of moisture and combinations of electrodes. Even for a long period of time the concrete electrical resistivity increases permanently. The electrical resistivity increasing of concrete at foundation earth could lead to decreasing of the effectively of the grounding system. Also, in industries, where static electricity appears, increasing resistivity of concrete floors could have influence in the technological processes.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>3. Vorgucic A., SOME PROBLEMS IN GROUNDING H.F. EQUIPMENTS AND DEVICES, 2nd Conference on Telecommunications in Modern Satellite and Cable Services (TELSIKS’95), Nis, 1995.</p>
<p>From abstract: This paper point at some problems which can appear in single-point grounding. This grounding, according to its advantages is widely used in electronics and H.F. systems grounding. In dependence from the working frequency and dimensions of the grounding system, by the practical realization of this grounding can also appear interference’s and disturbances in signals and informing data. For greater systems with H.F. it’s used grounding tree with branches, zones, sub-zones and Faradays armous.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>4. Vorgucic A., ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY CHANGE OF CONCRETE WITH THE AGE, 1st Serbien Symposium on Applied Electrostatic, Nis, 1984.</p>
<p>From abstract: In the paper are presented the last results of many ears research of the electrical resistivity of concrete. The electrical resistivity increasing of concrete at the foundation earth and the concrete floors, may have influence on the technological processes in industry, where static electricity appears. Electrical resistivity increasing with the age means decreasing the static electricity leading of, and spoiling the technological processes on one hand and the risk increasing from the explosions, fire and the shook to personal from the electrical stroke on the other.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>5. Vorgucic A., ABOUT ESTIMATION OF IMPULSE EARTHING RESISTANCE, 19th International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP1988), Graz, Austria.</p>
<p>From abstract: In the paper are given some considerations in connection with impulse earthling resistance and determining the effective length of the varies earthling electrodes. In the paper are also given the results of many years research of the electrical resistivity change of concrete used in foundation earthling.</p>
<p>&nbsp;</p>
<p>6. Vorgucic A., A NEW PROBLEM IN GROUNDING, Symposium on Electronics Technology ’90., Budapest, 1990.</p>
<p>From abstract: The results of many years research of the electrical resistivity change of concrete in connection with foundation grounding are presented. This examinations are made under different conditions of moisture and combinations of electrode materials. Even for a long period the concrete electrical resistivity increases permanently. Increasing of the concrete resistivity in the modern foundation grounding, which takes place every day more and more could lead to decreasing the grounding system s effectively. By increasing the grounding impedance could appear interference’s and disturbances in signals and measuring date, what depends from the working frequency and dimensions of the grounding.</p>

Contacts us

Address: Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Niš

Phone: +381 (18) 529-105

Fax: +381 (18) 588-399

e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

PIB: 100232259

Account number: 840-1721666-89